New Molecular Markers in Breast Cancer; Piwi-like protein-2 (PIWIL-2) and DEAD Box Helicase-4 (DDX-4) genes
Murat ÇAĞ1,Yeşim ÖZDEMİR2,Yusuf ÖZKUL3
1Department of Hepatopancreaticobilier and Transplantation, Strasbourg University, Strasbourg-Fransa
2Department of Medical Genetic, Üsküdar University, İstanbul-Turkey
3Department of Medical Genetic, Erciyes University, Kayseri-Turkey
DOI : 10.5505/tjo.2021.2603 OBJECTIVE
Breast cancer, which basically is the unchecked proliferation of the epithelial cells covering the ductus and the lobules of the breast, is the most common form of cancer in women and ranks second after lung cancer among total deaths from that disease. As all other carcinomas, mamarian cancer results from the progressive accumulation of genetic anomalies. Several genes exist that have been associated positively with breast cancer. We aimed to research the molecular markers about breast cancer's etiology, screening, treatment, and its follow-up.

Invasive ductal carcinoma from tumoral paraffin tissues and normal breast tissues taken from breast reduction surgeries was used in the study. The study examines the expressions of the PIWIL-2, PIWIL-1, DICER-1, and DDX-4 genes in the invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

As predicted, PIWIL-2 and DDX4 expressions were found to be significantly higher compared to normal tissues. PIWIL-1 expression, on the other hand, was recorded at borderline levels of significance. The expression of DICER-1, a gene responsible for the formation and maturation of microRNAs (miRNAs), revealed no significant difference.

It was concluded that the increased expression of PIWIL-2 and DDX-4 in breast cancer cases that are not detectable in normal tissue enables its use as a marker in the diagnosis and treatment of mamarian cancer and the post-therapy follow-up of the disease. It appears to be more informative to study the specific miRNAs of the gene rather than its expression to discern the function of the DICER-1 gene in breast cancer. Keywords : Breast cancer; DDX-4; DICER-1; invasive ductal carcinoma; PIWIL-2; real-time polymerase chain reaction